Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
Feb 7, 2016, 1:07:44 AM (22 months ago)
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trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v1 v2  
    11= Tracd =
    22
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script].
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    45
    56== Pros ==
    67
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
    8  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]).
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
    910 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    1011
    1112== Cons ==
    1213
    13  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache HTTPD.
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1415 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    15    or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    1617
    1718== Usage examples ==
     
    2021{{{
    2122 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     23}}}
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
     25{{{
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2227}}}
    2328With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     
    3439}}}
    3540
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service ==
     44
     45=== Option 1 ===
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
     47{{{
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     51}}}
     52
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     54
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     56{{{
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     58}}}
     59
     60The spacing here is important.
     61
     62{{{#!div
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
     65
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
     70
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     73}}}
     74
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
     76{{{
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
     78
     79net start tracd
     80}}}
     81
     82=== Option 2 ===
     83
     84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85
     86=== Option 3 ===
     87
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89{{{
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     91$ net start tracd
     92}}}
     93
    3694== Using Authentication ==
    3795
    38 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below, and omit the realm.
    39 
    40   ''Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.''
    41 
    42 If the file `/path/to/users.htdigest` contains user accounts for project1 with the realm "mycompany.com", you'd use the following command-line to start tracd:
    43 {{{
    44  $ tracd -p 8080 --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1
    45 }}}
    46 
    47 '''Note''': the project "name" passed to the `--auth` option is the base name of the project environment directory.
    48 
    49 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     96Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (htpasswd and htdigest) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without htpasswd or htdigest; see below for alternatives)
     97
     98Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux) may go undetected.
     99
     100Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     101
     102The general format for using authentication is:
     103{{{
     104 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     105}}}
     106where:
     107 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     108   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     109   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     110 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     111 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     112 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     113 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     114
     115 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     116
     117Examples:
     118
    50119{{{
    51120 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    52    --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    53    --auth project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
     121   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     122}}}
     123
     124Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     125{{{
     126 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     127   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     128   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
    54129   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    55130}}}
    56131
    57 Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*"
    58 for the project name:
     132Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
    59133{{{
    60134 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    61    --auth *,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
     135   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
    62136   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    63137}}}
    64138
    65 == How to set up an htdigest password file ==
     139=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     140This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     141
     142  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     143  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     144  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     145
     146To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     147{{{
     148 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     149}}}
     150then for additional users:
     151{{{
     152 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     153}}}
     154
     155Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     156{{{
     157 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     158}}}
     159
     160For example:
     161{{{
     162 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     163}}}
     164''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     165
     166=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
    66167
    67168If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
    68169
    69 Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    70 
    71 == Generating Passwords Without Apache ==
    72 
    73 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:
    74 
    75 {{{
     170Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     171
     172=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
     173
     174Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     175
     176You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
     177
     178{{{
     179#!python
    76180from optparse import OptionParser
    77 import md5
     181# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
     182try:
     183    from hashlib import md5
     184except ImportError:
     185    from md5 import md5
     186realm = 'trac'
    78187
    79188# build the options
     
    84193parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    85194                  help="the password to use")
     195parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
     196                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
    86197(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    87198
     
    89200if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    90201   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
     202if (options.realm is not None):
     203   realm = options.realm
    91204   
    92205# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    93 realm = 'trac'
    94 kd = lambda x: md5.md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
     206kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    95207print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    96208}}}
    97209
    98 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
    99 
    100 {{{
    101 python trac-digest.py -u username -p password > c:\digest.txt
    102 python tracd --port 8000 --auth proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
    103 }}}
     210Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
     211
     212{{{
     213 $ python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
     214 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     215}}}
     216
     217==== Using `md5sum`
     218It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     219{{{
     220user=
     221realm=
     222password=
     223path_to_file=
     224echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     225}}}
     226
     227== Reference ==
     228
     229Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     230{{{
     231Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     232
     233Options:
     234  --version             show program's version number and exit
     235  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     236  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     237                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     238  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     239                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     240  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     241  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     242                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     243  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     244  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     245  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     246  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     247  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     248                        parent directory of the project environments
     249  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     250                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     251  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     252  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     253  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     254  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     255  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     256                        octal notation (default 022)
     257  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     258  --user=USER           the user to run as
     259}}}
     260
     261Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
    104262
    105263== Tips ==
     
    107265=== Serving static content ===
    108266
    109 If `tracd` is the only webserver used for the project,
     267If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
    110268it can also be used to distribute static content
    111269(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     
    116274Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    117275the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    118 which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax
    119 in the Wiki: `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]`
    120 
    121 The development version of Trac supports a new `htdocs:` TracLinks
    122 syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply
    123 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz`.
     276which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     277
     278 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     279
     280=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     281
     282In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     283
     284In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     285
     286If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     287
     288See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     289
     290=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     291It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206.
     292
     293Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     294
     295First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     296
     297{{{
     298<Location /project/proxified>
     299        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     300        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     301        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     302        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     303        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     304</Location>
     305}}}
     306
     307Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     308{{{
     309#!python
     310from trac.core import *
     311from trac.config import BoolOption
     312from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     313
     314class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     315
     316    implements(IAuthenticator)
     317
     318    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     319               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     320                (''since ??.??').""")
     321
     322    def authenticate(self, req):
     323        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     324            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     325        return None
     326
     327}}}
     328
     329Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     330{{{
     331...
     332[trac]
     333...
     334obey_remote_user_header = true
     335...
     336}}}
     337
     338Run tracd:
     339{{{
     340tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     341}}}
     342
     343Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     344
     345Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     346{{{
     347[components]
     348remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     349[inherit]
     350plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     351[trac]
     352obey_remote_user_header = true
     353}}}
     354
     355Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     356{{{
     357[inherit]
     358file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     359}}}
     360
     361=== Serving a different base path than / ===
     362Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     363{{{
     364 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     365}}}
    124366
    125367----
    126 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide
     368See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]